Archive for September 2013



Effective  from the January 27th, 2011, directorate General of Seafarers of Panama Maritime  Authority, has declared that Panamanian Title Endorsement might solely be issued to a seafarers by submitting a legitimate Certificate of competency (COC) from  the  same  country of  the  seafarer’s nationality. Seafarers that submit a COC totally different from a rustic of that they're not nationals should approve the Assessment method (evaluation of the competence) so as to get a Panamanian COC.

En exception is created by the non-nationalities of the subsequent countries: USA, Canada Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Norway, EU countries,  India, UAE, Russia, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, Philippines, China, Republic of Korea, Japan, Australia, New Seeland, state (in case of Russians), Singapore, Hong Kong.

Officers that gift a COC from a rustic that's not their position which doesn't seem within the on top of listed countries have to be compelled to pass assessment method, so as to get Panamanian Title.

Having a Panamanian COC is vital for mariners that wish to increase their job opportunities and alternatives. Having a Panamanian COC permits the person to figure in any Panamanian flagged vessel that widens their opportunities since over 500th of the world´s vessels are Panamanian flagged and also the variety is increasing.

Although there are many agencies for getting a PANAMA COC but PANAMA MARITIME DILIGENCE AGENCY is the authorized one. Here is their procedure for PANAMA COC.

In order to start with the assessment method and to judge the ability of the officers the subsequent documents should be submitted:

·  Copy of Certificates of ability, Seaman National License

·  Copy of valid passport 

·  Copy of ocean Service records

·  Copy of obtainable STCW 78/95/2010 Certificates

·  High resolution ID digital colours photos 3x3 cm.

·  Medical Certificate valid. Not older than 24 months

·  Copy of Payment to PMA. (Bank details are going to be sent once required).

After analysis of bestowed documents, method of assessment completed, confirmation from the administration of supplying and payment of relevant fees, certificate of ability (COC) and seaman’s book along with corresponding certificates for officers below the STCW Convention 1995/2010 are going to be issued.

Note: Please send all documentation by email to:

Digital format for documentation pdf. (Only jpg the ID photo).


Certificate of competence in conjunction with different supporting documents, showing proof of experiences (from 12 to 36 months) shall be submitted for revision, final verification and approval by the Administration.  

Approval can take up to at least one week and every one method ought to be completed between 6-8 weeks.


1. From Deck and Engine ratings to OOWN / OOWE

2. From OOWN to deck Officer and Chief Mate

3. From Chief Mate to Master

4. From OOWE to Second Engineer

5. From Second Engineer to first Engineer and Chief Engineer


II/2 – necessary minimum needs for certification of masters and chief mates on ships of 500 gross tonnage duty or a lot of

Master and chief mate on ships of 3,000 gross tonnage duty or more

1. each master and chief mate on a oceangoing ship of 3,000 gross tonnage duty or a lot of shall hold associate applicable certificate.

2. each candidate for certification shall:

.1. meet the wants for certification as a politician guilty of a direction watch on ships of 500 gross tonnage duty or a lot of and have approved oceangoing service in this capacity:

.1.1. for certification as chief mate, not but 12 months, and

.1.2. for certification as master, not but 36 months; but, this era could also be reduced to not but 24 months if not but 12 months of such oceangoing service has been served as chief mate; and

3. have completed approved coaching and meet the quality of competency per section A-II/2 of the STCW Code for masters and chief mates on ships of between 500 and 3,000 gross tonnage duty.

III/2 – necessary minimum needs for certification of chief engineer officers and second engineer officers on ships supercharged by main propulsion machinery of 3,000 kW propulsion power or a lot of

Chief Engineers and  Second Engineer officers on ships of 3,000 kW or a lot of

 1. meet the wants for certification as a politician guilty of associate engineering watch and:

.1.1. for certification as second engineer officer, shall haven't but 12 months’ approved oceangoing service as assistant engineer officer or engineer officer, and

.1.2. for certification as chief engineer officer, shall haven't but 36 months’ approved oceangoing service of that not but 12 months shall are served as associate engineer officer in an exceedingly position of responsibility whereas qualified to function second engineer officer; and

2. have completed approved education and coaching and meet the quality of competency per section A-III/2 of the STCW Code.

Sunday, September 29, 2013
Posted by sanjay swain


Issuance of Belize marine licenses(COC)

Belize was placed on the IMO STCW White List in november 2001. Also, the IMO’s Maritime Safety Committee has confirmed that in accordance with Regulation 1/8 of the STCW 1978 Convention, it's received the specified freelance analysis that demonstrates that British Honduras is giving full and complete result to the said Convention. The procedures for supplying of such Endorsements by IMMARBE are based on equivalence, requiring proof that the person is in possession of an acceptable, recognized and valid certificate from a rustic that's on the IMO White List.

Although there are too many agent who promise to get you Belize COC but CAMABELIZE i.e. CAMA for IMMARBE-Belize is the only designated IMMARBE Office in INDIA. It is also the Office of the Dy.Registrar – IMMARBE Belize / Principal Officer – CAMA Belize / Dy.Commissioner – Belize Maritime Affairs.
CAMA Belize extends facilities to Indian as well as International Seafarers. CAMA accepts applications for Belize Seaman Book / Belize CDC, Marine Technician Books, Belize COC / License, Belize DC, Belize Endorsement.

For the issuing of COC’s at the start the subsequent documentary needs would be requested:
1.      Certificate of competency/Seaman's book

2.      Valid Passport copy

3.      STCW Certificates

4.   Home country continuous discharge book or Seaman's book showing expertise of minimum one year or 2 just in case of upgrade of COC for Master and Chief Engineer. 
    Formal letters of corporations / employers proving your experience; showing capability served on board, periods of service, tonnage, kilowatt and sort of vessel, is also accepted.

4.      Medical Certificate (not older than twenty four months)

5.      3cm x 3cm photos

Depending on every case extra documentation is also requested.

COC are going to be issued inside one week once all documents area unit reviewed and confirmed to be so as. 

Delivery of the first documents to the selected address are going to be done once we tend to received confirmation of the corresponding payment.

                                                       DECK SIDE

 Watchkeeping AB/DECK Ratings wide rule II/4
4 Basic STCW Courses
Passport Copy
Application Form
Over 3months seatime required after Pre-Sea Training
Over 6months seatime required with No Pre-Sea Training

wide rule II/1
4 Basic STCW
Passport copy
Seaman Book / CDC seatime endorsed pages 
Over 36months seatime required if sailed in the Rank of Ordinary Seaman
Over 6months seatime required if holding B.SC Nautical Science
Over 24months seatime required if holding Pre-Sea Deck Cadet
Over 12months seatime required if holding Ratings Watchkeeping COC
Holding II/1 COC with seatime over 12months
Mandatory STCW certificates
Advanced Fire Fighting, Medical First Aid
Preferably Bridge Simulation & ECDIS mandatory from June 2012 as per STCW 2010
Passport copy
Seaman Book / CDC seatime endorsed pages

MASTER wide rule II/2
Holding MATE COC with seatime over 36months from the time of holding Officer in-charge of Navigation Watch
Mandatory STCW courses with Advanced courses
Bridge Team Management Course


Watchkeeping MOTORMAN/ENGINE Ratings wide rule III/4
4 Basic STCW Courses
Passport Copy
Application Form
Over 3months seatime required after Pre-Sea Training OR over 6months seatime required with No Pre-Sea Training
wide rule III/1
4 Basic STCW
Passport copy
Seaman Book / CDC seatime endorsed pages 
Over 36months seatime required if sailed in the Rank of Wiper/Fitter
Over 12months seatime required if holding Mechanical/Electrical Engineering Diploma , ITI / NCTVT
Over 6months seatime required if holding Engineering Degree
Over 24months seatime required if holding Pre-Sea Engine Cadet
Over 12months seatime required if holding Ratings Watchkeeping COC
II ENGINEER wide rule III/2
Holding III/1 COC with seatime over 12months
Mandatory STCW certificates
Advanced Fire Fighting, Medical First Aid
Passport copy
Seaman Book / CDC seatime endorsed pages

Holding II ENGINEER COC with seatime over 18months from the time of holding Officer in-charge of Engineering Watch
Mandatory STCW courses with Advanced courses
Engine Room Simulator Course

  • Deck Cadets with 1.5 years of experience can upgrade to 3nd Officer Limited to 3000 GTR
  • Engineers with  1.5 years as engineer can upgrade to 3nd Engineer Limited to 3000 GTR
  • Emperical seamen must have 3 years of experience in order to upgrade to 3rd Officer "limited".
Note: any other rank upgrading must send the scan of current documents (letter of discharge, passport, medical cert, etc) listed above for private evaluation and pricing. 

1. A worldwide network of Deputy Registrars in major maritime centers
2. Worldwide network of General Safety Inspectors
3. Very Competitive tonnage taxes, fees and discount incentives
4. Potentially established legal system and mortgage recording services
5. Political stability of Belize
6. International Business Corporations (IBC)
7. Always on IMO White List
8. Wide choice of Authorized Classification Societies to issuance of Statutory Certificate w
ide survey and inspections. This includes all IACS & Non IACS.

Now the most important one is how much money we have to pay?
Different agent have different charges but fromone of the source it is 1 Lack INR for BELIZE COC WITH INDIAN CDC. But the fee includes all STCW courses, requirements, diligence's and COC

Saturday, September 28, 2013
Posted by sanjay swain


Yellow Fever may be a illness caused by infectious disease Virus. The infectious disease Virus spreads through infected two-winged insects bites.
Symptoms of infectious disease embrace :
# Fever and respiratory illness

# harm from many body elements

# jaundice

# sure organ failure like excretory organ, liver and alternative organs

# in severe cases might result in death.

Yellow fever vaccination is taken to stop {yellow fever|yellow jack|black vomit|infectious illness} disease. infectious disease immunogen may be a live, weakened virus, given as a single shot.  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO) approves only.
 only three makers of infectious disease vaccine viz :
1. Aventis biologist, France
2. BioManguinhos, Brazil
3. Institut biologist national capital, Senegal

The vaccine are effective after 10 days of obtaining the shot, therefore avoid traveling among ten days of being administered.

Yellow fever vaccination isn't to be to :
# kids aged less than 9 months for routine immunisation (or less than 6 months throughout associate degree epidemic);
#  Pregnant ladies – except throughout a infectious disease natural event once the danger of infection is high;
# individuals with severe allergies to egg protein; and
# individuals with severe immunological disorder as a result of symptomatic HIV/AIDS or alternative causes, or within the presence of a thymus disorder.

You will be given a infectious disease vaccination certificate when the shot, that you would like to hold throughout your international travel. Attaching a model International Certificate of Vaccination or prevention as suggested by UN agency.

For more information check


You will be provided infectious disease vaccination Certificate (International Certificate of Vaccination or prevention conjointly referred to as Yellow Card) once you get the infectious disease vaccination shot. 

Yellow Fever Vaccination Certificate is valid only:
# if the vaccination used could be a who approved vaccination and 

# if infectious disease vaccination centre is selected by the Health administration for the territory during which that center is placed e.g. for india the centre is approved by MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE.

Validity of infectious disease Vaccination Certificate is for amount of 10 years, starting 10 days when the date of vaccination or, if revaccinated at intervals such amount of 10 years, from the date of revaccination. The validity shall extend till the date indicated for the actual vaccination or prevention.

Yellow Fever Vaccination Certificate should be signed by a health professional or different person licensed by the National Health Administration in his own hand. His official stamp isn't AN accepted substitute for his signature.

Yellow Fever Vaccination Certificate shall be totally completed in English or in French. they will even be completed in another language, in addition to either English or French.

Any change of infectious disease Vaccination Certificate, or erasure, or failure to finish any a part of it, might render it invalid.

Yellow Fever Vaccination Certificate shall in no circumstances be used collectively. Separate certificates shall be issued for kids, spouse and different members of the family.

Yellow Fever Vaccination Certificate is proof of vaccination to enter sure countries. Travelers without the certificate can be given the immunizing agent upon entry or detained for up to six days to create sure they're not infected. Cases might vary relying upon the country of visit.

For mariners who want their yellow fever vaccination from Mumbai just dial 08291871016. He serve sugarcane juice just outside the MMD Mumbai. Call him one day before to get in the list. Very important person as the queue is formed either on the midnight of the previous day or early morning. Pay him 250 rupees.

Friday, September 27, 2013
Posted by sanjay swain


post the necessary documents xerox and form to the following address by
Registered / Speed post / Courier service to the 
Shipping Master,Government Shipping Office, Nau Bhavan, 10. R.K. Marg,
Ballard Estate,Mumbai - 400 001.
(Phone No. 022-2269 7971/ 2269 7972, Fax No. 022-22693053,

To Renew Indian CDC, following certificates to be sent along with Form B (latest copy) to Mumbai Shipping office.
1. CDC
2. Passport
4. PST
5. First Aid
6. Fire fighting
8. COC (If applicable)


Following documents are to be enclosed alongwith the application Form :
     A) For re-validation of CDC (for CDC Sticker)
(i)3 stamp size photographs in white shirt (size 3 cm x 2.5 cm) – one
should be affixed on the application form. Photo in uniform is not

(ii)One self addressed post card

(iii)One self addressed envelope (size: 5" x 12") with Rs.50/- (Rupees Fifty
only) postage stamp affixed (to forward revalidation CDC Sticker by speed

(iv)Xerox copy of CDC.

(v)Copy of the profile registration print out under Directorate Notice No. 1
Computer Cell (INDOS)/2010-I dated 09.11.2011.

B) For duplicate/replacement of CDC

(i)Two passport size photographs (size 3.5 cm x 3.5 cm) in white shirt in addition to the photo affixed on the application form. Photo in uniform is not acceptable.

(ii) One self addressed post card.

(iii)One self addressed envelope (size 5 " x 12") with Rs.100/- postage stamp affixed (to forward the CDC by speed post).

(iv)Non-refundable fee of Rs.1000/- through Demand Draft in favor of Shipping Master, Mumbai payable at Mumbai.

(v)Attested copy of proper FIR (in case of duplicate CDC for loss of CDC cases

(vi)  Xerox copy of CDC, if available (For loss of CDC cases)

(vii) Attested copy of INDOS Certificate.

(viii)Attested copies of four basic STCW familiarization courses.

(ix)  CDC in original. (For additional / Replacement CDC cases)

(x)Print out copy of registration of profile under Directorate Notice No. 1 Computer Cell (INDOS)/2010-11 dated 09.11.2011.

Copy of the profile registration print out under Directorate Notice No. 1 Computer Cell (INDOS)/2010-I dated 09.11.2011.

Download the CDC Renewal form @ M.S. Notice 24 of 2012 Dated 04.12.2012 . CDC renewal form is self explanatory. It covers not only CDC Renewal but also duplicate and lost CDC replacement procedure. 

Listing down important points :
# No need of attestation by Gazetted Officer, Self attestation accepted on copies of your documents.

# Do not forget to write your Full name and date of self attestation.

# Use only CAPITAL LETTERS while filling your CDC Renewal form.

# Avoid over-writing !

# Fill & send only page number 3 to 8 (first 2 instruction pages are for self reference)

# Write on top left hand of the envelope (containing documents/CDC renewal form) in BLOCK LETTERS Replacement/Duplicate/Re-validation of CDC as required.

# No fees levied for re-validation of CDC (CDC Sticker).

# Write your name on the reverse of your photograph.

# Send the application by Registered / Speed post / Courier service to the Shipping Master (from where CDC was obtained i.e. Mumbai/Kolkata/Chennai, address given in the CDC Renewal form)

All documents list send by me attached below.
Kept the documents list simple, did not add covering letter or next of kin details (advised by few shipping companies)


The 9th one "Copy Of Profile Registration Printout" is your E-SAMUDRA, DG SHIPPING SEAFARER PROFILE REGISTRATION
Register & complete your e-Samudra seafarer profile. Completing your DG Shipping Seafarer profile, is mandatory as per DG Guidelines.

How can one track CDC renewal status once CDC Renewal Form is send ?
You need to send a self addressed post card along with your documents. CDC renewal status will be send back to you on this post card. You will be assigned a file number on this post card for future reference related to your CDC Sticker application

Around 1.5 to 2 month time it required.

Indian CDC contain pages marked "SPACE FOR PASTE OF RENEWAL STICKER" almost at the end of CDC (Page number 29 onwards),please stick your CDC renewal sticker on this page.

If I had missed something, please do share your experience/updates about CDC renewal sticker.

Thursday, September 26, 2013
Posted by sanjay swain


Please, share your power and contribute with answers to the visitors' queries. we've got all completely different experiences and nobody is aware of everything, however along we will solve voluminous issues. A straightforward question for you may be a tough one for a colleague or the other way around.

Question:   Boiler pressure
In tanker vessels we use boilers for cargo heating.
Lets say that steam pressure to deck line adjusted to 5 bar.
What will be most economical? Boiler pressure adjusted to 7 bar or to 16 bar ?

The higher pressure would be advantageous if the boiler is oil-fired,
but the difference is hardly measurable.
If you have a diesel engine exhaust gas economizer then 7 bar boiler pressure would gain more heat from the exhaust gases.

Question:   Emegency low water level in the boiler
I want to know what should be my immediate action in case I saw no water in the boiler gauge glass.

Stop the burners immediately.
Do not pump in any feedwater until you know that the boiler is undamaged.
If some parts of the plates or tubes are glowing, then increasing of the water level will cause an enormous evaporation and hence a pressure rise that the safety valves can't manage and an explosion might be a fact.

Question:   Cavitation in a two flow line
We have a steam genereting facilty using process heat. The condenser is a vertical condenser with process vapours on tube side and boiler feed water on shell side. The outlet of the shell side is a two phase flow. Pipe thickness reduction of the shell side outlet pipe is observed for last couple of years. We replace the piece of pipe every one year. I want to know the probable reasons for this to happen.

I guess it might be a cavitation problem. Calculate the flow rate. Decreasing the speed of the flow might be a solution i.e., increase the pipe diameter.

Question:   Boiler drum level control goes haywire
We are having 100 tones FBC boilers. Frequent problem observed is that whenever there is sudden load change the boiler drum level control goes haywire leading to tripping of boiler and turbine on drum level low or high. Our drum level control is 3-element control in auto mode.

The most common fault with a three-point level controller is the steam flow transmitter.

Loosen the impulse pipes and cleanse the holes into the measuring orifice.

Question:   Firing light crude oil
Can a Main Boiler built to fire 380 cst HFO, be fired with light crude oil directly from the cargo-tanks?

A completely new fuel system is required, from deck to the burner rails of the boiler. To prevent any possibility of gasses leaking from flanges, there have to be ducting enclosing the entire fuel-system with forced draft fans that vent 30 times the volume of the trunking to the outside. Also there have to be a burner hood to be constructed all over the burner roof, equally vented. Naturally there have to be new burners and so is the burner management.

There are two main contractors who are capable and willing to carry this out: HAMWORTHY-Combustion Engineering in UK and SAACKE in Germany. 

Question:   Seawater in the boiler
If the boiler had to be operated with seawater what would be the result.

The salinity will rise rapidly since the salt remains in the boiler while the water boils off. Salt will son precipitate and accumulate on the bottom and also on the heating surface where it, just as boiler-scales, inhibit the heat transmission to the water and causes the metal to overheat and in worst case burst. You may also get foam in the boiler that will cause difficulties to maintain the water level and water droplets might follow with the steam, causing problems with turbines and engines.
It is very dangerous to operate a boiler with salt in it, and you have to control the salt concentration by frequently blowing off from the bottom of the boiler and form the water surface to keep the salinity below 9.5% (boilermakers and classification societies may recommend other values).
It would also be a good measure to reduce the capacity of the boiler.
After this emergency operation it would be wise to open up the boiler for inspection since seawater further accumulation of scales.

In the old days some ships sailing on lakes used the lakes water as make up water for their boilers, but even that water caused problem with salt in the boilers although it is supposed to be fresh-water.

Question:   Heavy fuel oil viscosity
Heavy fuel oil viscosity is defined in the standards as the viscosity at 100°C yet the oils are often described in terms of their nominal 40 or 50°C temperature viscosities. e.g. a G35 oil (35cst at 100°C) is often described as anything from a 350cst to 390cst oil. Refineries blend to control the viscosity at 100°C. Testing aboard ship or in boiler hosues appears to test the viscosity at 50°C. Because of the variation in quality of the residual oil and distillate that make up a heavy fuel oil, it is difficult to make a good correlation between the 50°C and 100°C measurements. My question is, how is the blending of oil in the terminals or on fuel barges controlled? and how reliable is this in achieving the required viscosity?

The values you get from my Fuel Oil Calculation program are normally sufficient for firing a boilers heavy fuel oil burner. For a diesel engine on the other hand, I assume that an automatic viscosity-controller would be indispensable.

Question:   Heating up a fire-tube boiler
Is there a minimum temperature that a fire-tube boiler should reach before going to a high fire state to prevent tubes from leaking?

The important thing is to heat up the boiler slowly so all parts of the boiler expand just as much. The leaks occur when some part expands more, or less, than the rest of the boiler. You will be on the safe side if you slowly heat up the boiler to, or almost to, normal operation pressure before you start high firing. 

Question:   Combustion air preheating
Please tell me how air inlet temperature affects boiler efficiency. What are the benefits of air preheating?

The combustion air will be heated to the flame temperature. This heating cost money. If you have some waste heat to be used for preheating the combustion air it will pay.

Question:   Water in the heavy fuel oil
Is it possible to overheat heavy fuel oil thus causing any water in it to turn to steam and cause problems at the pump and burner?.

Yes it is. The temperature of the heavy fuel oil is very often 130°C to 150°C and water introduced to that temperature would immediately evaporate into steam. When boiling it expands about 1590 times. The situation might be dangerous since the safety valves not are designed for steam.
This kind of problem is very likely to occur when you change fuel oil tank and some water from a poorly drained pipe mixes with the heavy fuel oil.

Question:   Oil showing in the water level gauge glass
Whilst on your engine room rounds, you discover oil showing in the water level gauge glass of an auxiliary boiler. Describe the remedial actions you would take, explaining why such actions must not be delayed.

Stop the burner immediately.
Oil present, even small quantities, in boiler water will cause foaming and moisture carry-over. It also forms a heat insulating film, sometimes a carbonized layer, over tubes or shell surfaces. Even a very thin layer may result in tube or plate material failure due to overheating.
The oil manifests itself by forming an oily ring inside the water gauge glasses, at the water level.

Question:   Emergency low boiler water level
You are an officer on watch, & finds the boiler water-level gauge glass to be empty & the burner firing...What is your course of action? (Assuming the gauge glass to be clear & good working order)

Normally a boiler is provided with two independent sensors for emergency low water level burner cut-outs. So this would never happen. However, if it does, don’t take any chances! Shut off the burners immediately!
Before you start raising the level in the boiler you have to find out if any part of the furnace walls has been overheated. If you raise the level over a glowing steel-wall then the boiler might produce more steam than the safety valves can handle and a nasty explosion would be the result.

A quick test to see if it is safe to put water into the boiler is to temporarily close the steam cock on the gauge glass. If the level rises to the top of the glass, it means that there is still a water level in the water leg, which is also over the highest heat exchange surface in a firetube boiler. The water rises because of the vacuum caused in the glass with condensing steam.

Question:   Differential pressure transmitters for the steam drum level
Way is the high pressure leg of the transmitter connected to the water side and the low-pressure leg connected to the steam side?

The signal from the transmitter ought to increase when the water level raises and decreases when the level falls. Furthermore the signal shall be zero, and give impulse to stop the burner, in case of transmitter malfunction, power failure or cable breakdown.

Both requirements will be fulfilled if the transmitter is mounted with the high pressure measuring point connected below the lowest water level and the low pressure measuring point connected above the highest water level. The output will increase when the level is raised. To compensate for the water column in the reference leg the output signal's zero-point has to be elevated.
This is the common method.

If the transmitter is swapped, with the low pressure side to lower end and the high pressure side to upper end, then the signal will decrease when the level is raised.
This signal can be used to control the level as well, but the signal can not be used to stop the burner for emergency low level in case of power failure or cable breakdown. This system requires an extra sensor to trip burner at emergency low water level.
One can of course use the emergency high water level alarm to stop the burner, but this is not correct. The emergency high water level shall stop the feed water pump and whenever applicable stop the steam turbine, but not the burner.

Question:   Fluctuating boiler water level
The feed water control valve is fully open and the water levels fluctuate at normal boiler load.

Check if:

  • the control valve really is fully open by means of the hand-manoeuvre device.
  • all stop valves in the line are fully open.
  • the suction filter to the feed water pump is satisfactory clean.
  • the feed water pump discharge pressure is sufficient.
  • the feed water control valve pressure drop is normal. (>=2 bar or >=30 psi)
If all these are fund to be in order, then you should recalculate the control valves KV-value (CV-value). Under-sized control valves do exist, even though over-sized control valves more often cause malfunction of automatic control loops.The tuning of the controller(s) is dependent on the system you have, but do not even try to tune the control loops until the above criteria are fulfilled.

Question:   The burner starts and stops very often
The burner starts and stops very often, sometimes every second minute. An alarming temperature-raise has been observed in the combustion air fans electric motor.
  • Increasing the burners turn down ratio would be a nice solution, but it's not always possibly.
  • Run the burner in minimum load, i.e., prevent the burner from increasing the load just after the burner start.
  • Install a five to ten minutes' time-delay in the fan-motor stop function. Then the fan will continue to run during the shortest burner stops and the combustion air fan motor will get a little rest from the start current. 

Question:   Most likely source of errors
In which part of a boiler control system is it most likely to get a failure.
When you have problem with a boiler control system you should keep in mind that most faults occur outside the control cubicle, but on the other hand, your problem might not be among the most common.
Statistically calculated faults in control systems.
Transmitters and sensors
40 %
25 %
10 %
Loss of electric power
5 %
20 %

Question:   Open steam valves slowly
Why has a steam valve, or at least a big steam valve, to be opened slowly?
If you have a one liter of water standing in the pipe just after the valve and open the valve too fast, then you will get a projectile of one kg rushing down the pipe. At next valve, bend or other obstacle the speed of the water mass will be converted into pressure. You can hardly imagine the damage this energy can cause.
Thermal stress is an other reason to be very cautious and drain out water carefully when you open a steam valve.
A large steam valve ought to have a small by-pass valve to simplify preheating of the pipe.

Question:   Low viscosity fuel for high viscosity burners
Our boiler plant is designed to be fired with heavy fuel oil of 590 cSt @ 50°C.
Would it be safe to run it on Gas Oil of 7 cSt @ 40°C?
Well, this is a question for the burner maker. Don't forget to ask them too.
It is outmost important that the fuel oil heaters are by-passed when firing Gas Oil or Diesel Oil. These fuels must never be heated above their flash-point.
  • For a steam atomized burner you have to switch over to compressed air atomizing since light fuels must not be atomized by means of steam. This burner will probably fire the fuel without any problem since they normally are designed for fuel viscosity between 10 and 20 cSt.
  • A rotary cup burner, on the other hand, might give some problem with the flame since this atomizing method normally require a fuel viscosity of about 25 to 60 cSt.
In the event of failed ignition, gas-oil is more likely to cause an explosive mixture than heavy oil. However, a dangerous situation should never occur if the procedure for such failed ignition is followed. Upon two consecutive failed ignition attempts, a thorough investigation into the cause should be sought and the furnace correctly purged inline with the manufacturers and ruling classification society’s requirements.
N.B.   7 cSt @ 40°C  =  5.5 cSt @ 50°C.
The viscosity’s of lighter fuels are normally given at 40°C and the viscosity of heavier fuels at 50°C, 80°C, 100°C or even higher temperature.
For conversion of viscosity and density at one temperature to viscosity and density at an other temperature I recommend  The FUEL OIL Calculation Program.

Question:   Composite Boilers
What is the inherent problem in Composite Boiler?
There are different types of composite boilers. Normally one part of the boiler is heated by means of a fuel oil burner and the other part is heated by the exhaust gases from a diesel engine.
  • Heating of one part of a boiler at the time often causes thermal stress that may lead to leakage.
  • One single composite boiler does not fulfill normal requirement of redundancy when the steam is used for essential service purpose.

Question:   Steam valves open causing a sudden large load
I have two 82,000 lb/hr natural gas fired boiler that is designed for 300 psig and operating at 205 psig (saturated). The boilers serve a large campus with numerous buildings, each with an integrated building management control system. Due to an unresolvable characteristic of the building control system, occasionally all of the building steam valves open causing a sudden large load on the boilers that lasts for 20 to 30 minutes. The demand for steam is not real in that no heat is actually required by the buildings. When this condition occurs we have a serious water carryover problem. My question is how can we maintain boiler pressure and water level while either ignoring or controlling the sudden false load. Our combustion control system is a PLC based system, metered/cross limited air-fuel ratio , three element drum level and oxygen trim.
Shall we try to correct thorugh the control algorithm or add backpressure control valves. I look forward to any advise.
The steam capacity doesn’t seem to be sufficient to supply all the fully open control valves. First of all recalculate the control valves. Over-sized control valves are very common cause of problems.

Question:   Transport superheated steam
Is it possible to transport superheated steam of the order of 45 t/h at 30 bar pressure and temp of 300 deg from a aux boiler to a distance of 1.5 Km?
Calculate with a velocity of 15 m/s (49 ft/s). To avoid water hammering the pipe-line should slop slitely downwards in the steam flowing direction. To start up the line you will need a drain valve on every 30 m (100 ft).


Thursday, September 19, 2013
Posted by sanjay swain
Tag :


It takes the enormous Emma Maersk, that carries the equivalent of nearly 15,000 twenty-foot containers (TEUs), concerning 3 and a 0.5 miles to come back to a dead stop. however there is no stopping the Triple-E, Maersk Line's even larger category of container ship, from coming into the liner trades over subsequent 3 years.

Not that Maersk, or different ocean carriers with plans to deploy similar vessels, needs to place a halt to the building of those record-breakers. the corporate has ordered twenty of the ships, with the primary 5 scheduled  for delivery within the half of this year. they're going to see service within the Asia-Europe trade. however Maersk has determined to not devour its choice for an extra ten Triple-Es. And despite carriers’ claims that the most important ships can result in far better operational efficiencies and a lower price per instrumentation slot, shippers ar troubled concerning the impact they're going to wear service.

The Triple Es are the most important vessels of any kind on the water. As Maersk likes to means, every of the new ships might accommodate a gridiron, a court and a hockey building. Their specifications ar actually impressive: quite one,300 feet long, 193 feet wide and 239 feet tall. (Noah’s ark was aforementioned to be solely around 450 feet long. Imagine what percentage a lot of species you may cram into a Maersk container ship.) And whereas the Triple-E are solely slightly wider and longer than the carrier’s previous E-class ships (of that the Emma Maersk was one), it'll be ready to carry an extra 2,500 containers.

Even shippers see a plus to the newbuilds. “Larger ships use less fuel per instrumentation, [expel] fewer emissions and ar positive to the price structure,” aforementioned Richard Smith, vice chairman of world transportation with Sears Holdings business firm. “But can shippers share the price advantage? That’s associate degree open question.”

Smith spoke on a panel at the Journal of Commerce’s annual Trans-Pacific Maritime Conference in city, Calif. He applauded carriers’ determination to remain in business, partially through the readying of recent vessel technology, however he puzzled what the impact are on the client.

Start with the question of however carriers ar attending to fill all those instrumentation slots. Granted, the new arrivals are commutation older and smaller vessels (if you think about a 10,000-TEU ship to be “small”), however most of the displaced duty can find yourself in different trades, primarily the trans-Pacific. Infobahn impact are a lot of capability that has to be crammed. can carriers got to stop at extra ports so as to load enough merchandise to simplyify the trip? can they prolong voyages that were already caught up so as to avoid wasting on fuel? And just however long can it want unload these floating cities after they finally do hit port?

Landside problems ar equally worrisome. what percentage ports have the {acreage|land ara|area|expanse|surface area} to accommodate the thousands of containers that may be flowing across their docks with each ship call? Major containerports are shift from wheeled to stacked operations so as to spice up potency, however do they need area for all those boxes? will they find, carry and move them out of the port quick enough? What concerning side cranes, that should be reinforced and stretched to figure the extra-wide vessels? “Port productivity is pretty commonplace, with relevancy the quantity of containers which will be processed per hour,” noted Smith.

Both on dock and on the far side port boundaries, intermodal railyards should be ready to shift all those containers onto and off stack trains in an exceedingly timely manner. Neighborhoods that adjoin port property already complain concerning the noise and pollution generated by trucks, trains and ships on arrival and sailing days. what proportion a lot of congestion can result once all of that activity is triggered by one ship?

Then there’s the matter of longshore labor. U.S. dockworkers ar traditionally less productive than their counterparts in places like urban center, Singapore and city. can they intensify the pace once the new ships return career, with all those extra boxes to be handled? cistron Seroka, president of ground with APL restricted, aforementioned geographical region ports have already succeeded in boosting labor productivity to some extent. “We’ve seen some efficiencies inside our own company, whereas trade continues to interact with labor,” he said.

Smith more puzzled what impact the megaships can wear existing slot-sharing arrangements inside multi-carrier alliances. Already he’s sad concerning catching for service with one carrier, solely to seek out that his containers were affected by one amongst that provider’s alliance partners, presumably even returning into a unique terminal. Or say that Sears strategically arranges for 0.5 its containers to be affected by one carrier, and 0.5 by another – then learns that every one of the boxes beneath contract were loaded onto constant vessel. Expect that follow to become even a lot of common with the readying of larger ships. within the event, Smith said, “we lose the leverage we've with the carrier we’re catching with.”

Seroka defended the megaships, along side the space-sharing alliances, as essential tools for trade survival. “Significant trade losses have forced carriers to drastically scale back prices,” he said.

He insisted that productivity problems raised by the large new ships ar being addressed . APL is modifying its cranes in line with their wider dimensions. At constant time, it’s finance in new interior container-terminal capability, to alleviate bottlenecks caused by the transfer of boxes between truck and train deep within the interior.

As for the carrier alliances, they're going to mean larger flexibility for shippers, with a lot of port-pairing choices, Seroka aforementioned. “It doesn’t mean a lot of calls, however the supply of primary, secondary and tertiary service for wider and a lot of expansive service areas.”

I see a parallel with the event of the airliner A380, associate degree craft which will carry quite 850 passengers in some configurations. I, for one, don't have any want to be one amongst them. Would I feel that very same manner if I were the owner of a instrumentation that’s one amongst 9,000 stowed inside one ship?

Already shippers are whiny concerning canceled sailings and slowed-down ships. perhaps carriers can discern a way to deploy these megavessels in an exceedingly manner that may yield the mandatory economies of scale while not compromising more on service quality. however plenty of their customers, it seems, have nevertheless to be convinced.
Saturday, September 14, 2013
Posted by sanjay swain


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